Tikamgarh district lies in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. The early history of Tikamgarh district is however not chronicled, though as suggested by the numerous ruins of buildings and other old remains lies scattered at various places, viz Orchha, Garh Kudar, Prithvipur, Barana, Lidhoura, Digora, Mohangarg, Baldeogarh and Tikamgarh, it must be having a glorious past.
The district was the part of vast empires successively ruled by the Mauryas, the Sungas and the imperial Guptas. It was in the first quarter of ninth century A.D., that Mannuka founded a new dynasty the Chandel dynasty in this area. Tikamgarh alongwith Khajuraho and Mahoba formed part of extensive Chandel Kingdom.
The Khangras also held this region especially around Garh Kundar. The rising power of Bundelas in this region resulted into the downfall of the Khangras. The Orchha records trace the descent of the Bundela Kingdom of Orchha from Garh Kudar chiefs of Benaras Hemkaran, also known as Pancham Bundela.
The District takes its name from the headquarters town as Tihri, in Orchha State. In 1783 Raja Vikramajit shifted his capital from Orchha town to Tihri and renamed it Tikamgarh but it was officially recognized in 1887. The name adopted in the honor of Lord Krishna, Tikam being one of his appellations.
Tikamgarh District is located in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. It forms the north-western part of Sagar District. It lies on the Bundelkhand Plateau between the Jamni, a tributary of Betwa and Dhasan rivers. It extends between the latitude 24 degree 26 minute and 25 degree 34 minute N and between 78 degree26 minute and 79 degree 21 minute Longitudes. The shape of district is triangular. The northern margin is very irregular. The maximum length of the district is about 119 Km. From North to South and width about 80 Km. Tikamgarh District is bounded by Chhatarpur district to east, Lalitpur district Uttar Pradesh to West, Jhansi to North and Sagar to South. The western and Eastern boundaries are formed by two big rivers.
Tikamgarh district is divided into six tehsils grouped into three sub divisions of Tikamgarh, Niwari and Jatara. The Tikamgarh sub division comprises Tikamgarh and Baldeogarh tehsils, Niwari and Prithvipur tehsil form Niwari Sub Division whereas Jatara sub division comprises of Jatara and Palera Tehsil. There are six development blocks namely Tikamgarh, Jatara, Baldeogarh, Palera, Niwari and Prithvipur.
The names of Police Stations located in the district are Tikamgarh, Digora, Lidhoura, Palera, Kudila, Baldeogarh, Khargapur, Orchha, Mohangarh, Niwari, Jatara, Budera, Jeron, Badagaon, Teharka, Sendri, Simra, and Prithvipur.
The District lies in the Ganga Drainage system. The Betwa flows along its north-western boundary. The Dhasan, one of its right bank tributaries and a big stream itself, mark the eastern boundary of the district. Both these rivers flow towards the north-east. The natural drainage of the district is diverted in the opposite directions into these rivers, the Dhasan sharing about 75 percent of the waters of the district. The tributaries of the Betwa flowing in the Tikamgarh district are Jamni, Bagri and Barua.
According to the settlement records, there were 962 tanks constructed during the Chandela period. Most of which were small with low bunds. Out of these tanks 125 tanks were used for tank-bed cultivation. The number of tanks over the years has now been reduced to 421. However, several tanks are of considerable size, particularly those at Baldeogarh, Bamhauri Barana, Lidhoura, Jatara, and Bir Sagar. It is noticeable that none of these tanks with their massive dams, built by the Chandela and others were originally intended for irrigation. They were evidently constructed merely adjacent to temples, Palace and favorite resorts of the rulers. Their adaptation for irrigation is invariably a modern development.
The Climate of Tikamgarh district is monsoon type. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from December to February followed by the hot season, from March to about the middle of June. The period from about mid-June to the end of September is the rainy season. The months of October and November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season.
There is only one rain gauge station in the district at Tikamgarh. The average rainfall of the district is 40 inch. It varies from 33 inch to 54 inch, in different parts of the district. It is seen that rainfall in the district in general increases from northwest to southwest. Parts of the Niwari tehsil and Mohangarh of Jatara tehsil alos come in the low rainfall zone. About 90 percent of the annual rainfall in the district is received during the south-west monsoon season – June – September, July being the rainiest month.